The Livingston Curve

The serial accelerator inventions that permitted high energy research to achieve the outstanding scientific feats it is famous for were motivated by competition for scarce funding dollars drove. The “more bang for the buck” designs focus first on particle energy—from MeV to GeV to the TeVs of Fermilab’s Tevatron and CERN’s Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Particle energy defines the threshold that makes any event possible, but beam intensity is important for “event count rate”.

Accelerators were more ready for Fusion in 1979 than Rockets were for the Moonshot in 1961