Fusion Power Corporation Information
8880 Cal Center Drive,
Suite 400, Sacramento, California 95826
The Fusion Power
Corporation (FPC) has been formed to design and provide consulting services to
assist in the construction of a fusion power plant using the technology researched
in US National Laboratories more than three decades ago. This technology is mature but was never
implemented in commercial practice.
The technology applications consist of coupling together existing
commercially available ion sources, radio frequency (RF) accelerators, reaction
vessel designs, and liquid metal heat exchange systems. The physics of the fusion reaction
itself is well understood and the use of an RF accelerator provides a driving
system that has more than enough energy to initiate the fusion process.
The lack of
implementation of the fusion power plant concepts developed during the 1970s seems
to have been for several reasons:
1) the funding for the program was removed because the prior research
and development effort had been in a weapons research area of the Department of
Energy and no funding was available in the civilian application program areas
of the Department of Energy at that time;
2) the use of accelerator driven fusion required produced too much
energy at a single facility and was not in keeping with the general utility
philosophy of a multitude of small units rather than a single large unit: and,
3) the cost of an accelerator fusion driven system was considered by some to be
FPC has recognized
that the output of a fusion system is heat – not electricity. Yes, heat can be used to make steam and
this steam can supply the energy for a conventional steam turbine power system. But this wastes the high quality heat
delivered by the fusion process.
The FPC solution is to use this high quality heat to provide the energy
necessary for the disassociation of water into Hydrogen and Oxygen. The waste
heat from the production of Hydrogen is used to produce steam for electricity
generation. The Hydrogen is combined with CO2, extracted from the
air used in cooling processes, and used in the syntheses of synthetic gasoline,
diesel or jet fuel.
half of the energy produced is thus delivered as a liquid fuel. Liquid fuels
are the commodities that will be in short supply later this decade. Lower
temperature waste heat can be used to produce fresh water through distillation
if there is a need for water in the region.
Success of the FPC
business model depends on the design of a fusion power plant that can be
constructed by a consortium of partners, oil companies, refiners, utilities,
and other heat consuming industries.
FPC's primary role is to complete the design and to license this design
to the implementing consortium.
FPC will also provide services to the implementing consortium and will
endeavor to be a part owner in the consortium as well.
The modern world survives – and
prospers – by the use of prodigious amounts of energy. Our global consumption
of fossil fuel energy has increased nearly 8 fold in the last 60 years although
our global population has only increased 2.5 times. Our fossil fuel resources
are finite so this rate of usage has a limited life – oil is likely to peak in
a few years, if it has not already peaked, and coal will follow suit in a few
decades. Peaking does not mean that supply necessarily immediately declines but
it does indicate that significant growth is no longer possible. Even the
nemesis to many, nuclear fission energy, has its problems with safety as
evidenced by recent events in Japan and waste management issues that are still
unresolved after decades of effort.
New units are likely to require the use of reprocessed fuel and/or
plutonium with its complex security requirements to prevent it from being used
to make ‘bombs’.
The maintenance of our current level of energy consumption, let alone its growth to satisfy
the needs of less developed economies, will require a new base load energy source. Biomass,
solar, and even wind energy are likely to grow too slowly to even meet the rapid decline of oil
resources that will begin in the next few years. These forms of energy generation generally
have low energy return for energy invested and will not meet the future global demands for
energy. Nuclear takes years to permit, fuel availability is problematic, and severe containment,
security, safety and waste management issues abound. Our only real hope for a large new
energy source is to rapidly bring fusion power on line.
Fusion Power Corporation (FPC) believes that the solution to the energy problem
is the rapid development of a new source of energy based on the use of the
technique known as Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF). This technique was thoroughly researched in the 1970's and
has repeatedly been endorsed by the world scientific community. The technique uses a moderate sized
accelerator to provide the driver energy necessary to compress and ignite the
fuel. Model calculations show that
the ratio of energy out to energy in can be as high as 500. This means that the cost of energy
produced by an HIF system should be comparable to the cost of the energy in old
oil. Moreover, a single
accelerator can provide the ignition energy necessary to create from a fusion
reactor complex energy equivalent of a super giant oil field (500,000 barrels
of oil per day) with no carbon impact on the environment.
Our immediate corporate goal
is to design a fully operational fusion power system using a heavy ion
accelerator as the driver to compress and heat the Deuterium/Tritium (DT)
pellet in a reaction chamber.
Heavy ions, accelerated to about half the speed of light have sufficient
energy to both compress and heat the DT fuel pellet to conditions that enable
the fusion of the DT atoms to form Helium and an energetic neutron. The resulting products have slightly
less mass than the reactants and release large amounts of energy, in accordance
with the equation introduced to all of us by Einstein in 1905, namely E=MC2. The energy released is very large and
results in the creation of a plasma fireball. The temperature in this fireball is very high, more than
enough to vaporize any material within a few feet of the center of the
explosion. Thus the reaction must
be confined within a strong reaction chamber about 30 feet in diameter. As the plasma cools, energy is
extracted by a combination of processes and this energy is used to create
useful products such as heat, hydrogen, and electricity.
Each pulse results in the
release of the energy equivalent to that released in the burning of 1.6 barrels
of oil. In a fully developed
system, there is an pulse every 10th of a second, in one of the 10
reaction chambers. This results in
the production of the energy equivalent of 16 barrels of oil per second or 1.4
million barrels of oil equivalent per day.
Clearly, the production of
this much energy means that the system is large and will require a substantial
investment. But if the size is scaled correctly, it is very profitable and it
is this profit that is the end reward for the investors in this project.
"What are these rewards? For a fully developed
fusion energy complex (10 reaction chambers), the income stream is projected to
be $20 billion per year if one uses the cost of the energy in coal as the
basis for the pricing of the delivered energy. It is slightly greater, $25
billion, if one equates the energy produced to value of $50 per barrel oil.
Direct operating and maintenance costs are likely to be in the range of $6
billion per year."
plans to finance its development efforts through the issuance of stock and/or
convertible notes to qualified investors.
Development of a Fusion
power plant requires a complicated set of internal and external
relationships. These vary from
compliance with governmental regulations that govern the production of
electricity from thermonuclear power plants to the local issues of increased road
traffic. But they also include
corporate relationships, such as the licensing of IP from existing IP holders,
to the relationships between end users of the power.
firmly believes that, by 2050, fusion will be the source of most of the world’s
energy. This is not wishful thinking, it is
simply a way of stating that all other forms of energy that are based on the
use of finite fossil fuel sources must decline in the next few decades. This decline will provide a major
impetus for the rapid increase in the utilization of this new form of energy.
World Energy Use by Fuel Type
Elements of the History
“See the thing as it is, not as you might want it to be.”
— David Bohm, among the earliest to envision power from fusion, in “Creativity”
of nuclear science is inextricable from generating and handling
energetic charged particles. The tool for the discovery of the nucleus
was a beam of helium nuclei, then known as “alpha particles”, because
they were the first “particle” to be given a name. Discovery of the
nucleus demanded and got theoretical pictures of the atom, driving the
development of quantum mechanics. The contemporaneous theory of
relativity famously shook philosophical concepts, while quantum
mechanics spawned technologies that did and continue to dramatically
change the world.
of the first man-made accelerators enabled observation of the fusion of
the nuclei of light atoms—before the realization that fusion is the
energy source of the stars, at the same time (1932) that fission of the
nucleus was observed.
It may have been
unavoidable that the background for the exhilaration of these momentous
developments was a world in tumult. The path of nuclear science, and
technologies such as RF power for communications and accelerators, led
to important involvement in World War II. The world truly awoke to
nuclear energy with the explosion of The Bomb. That we still permit
these ultimately threatening weapons to exist underlines the urgency of
taking nuclear energy to the stage where we enjoy its enormous benefits
and deny its dark side. Fusion that precludes production of bomb
materials is the only physical answer. A canon of FPC’s design is to
prove this crucial goal is achievable.
Timeline of nuclear fusion -
Modified from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Timeline of significant
events in the study and use of nuclear
- 1952 – Ivy Mike demonstrated the energy from fusion.
- 1952 - Cousins and Ware built a small toroidal pinch device in England, and demonstrated
that instabilities in the plasma make pinch devices inherently unstable.
- 1952, Ivy Mike shot of Operation
Ivy: The first detonation of a hydrogen
bomb, yield 10.4 megatons of TNT out of a fusion fuel of liquid
deuterium. The "Ivy
Mike" shot of 1 November 1952, was the first full test of
a Teller-Ulam design "staged"
hydrogen bomb, with a yield of 10 megatons. It was not a deployable
weapon, however — with its full cryogenic
equipment it weighed some 82 tons.
- 1953 - pinch devices in the US and USSR attempted to
take the reactions to fusion levels without worrying about stability. Both
reported detections of neutrons, which were later explained as
non-fusion in nature.
- 1954 - ZETA device started operation at Harwell
south of Oxford in England.
- 1956 - Experimental research of tokamak
systems started at Kurchatov Institute, Moscow
by a group of Soviet scientists led by Lev Artsimovich.
- 1958 - American, British and Soviet
scientists began to share previously classified fusion research, as their
countries declassified controlled fusion work as part of the Atoms for Peace conference in Geneva
- 1958 - ZETA experiments ended. Several firings produced
neutron spikes that the researchers initially attributed to fusion, but
later realized were due to other effects. Last few firings showed an odd
"quiet period" of long stability in a system that otherwise
appeared to prove itself unstable. Research on pinch machines generally
died off as ZETA appeared to be the best that could be done.
- 1961 - The Soviet
Union test the most powerful hydrogen
bomb, the Tsar Bomba (50 megatons).
- 1965 (approximate) - The 12 beam "4 pi laser"
using ruby as the lasing medium is developed at LLNL includes a gas-filled
target chamber of about 20 centimeters in diameter.
- 1967 - Demonstration of Farnsworth-Hirsch Fusor appeared to
generate neutrons in a nuclear reaction.
- 1968 - Results from the T-3 Soviet magnetic confinement
device, called a tokamak, which Igor
Tamm and Andrei Sakharov had been working on -
showed the temperatures in their machine to be over an order of magnitude
higher than what was expected by the rest of the community. The Western
scientists visited the experiment and verified the high temperatures and
confinement, sparking a wave of optimism for the prospects of the tokamak,
which is still the dominant magnetic confinement device today, as well as construction
of new experiments.
- 1970 - Kapchinskii
and Teplyakov conceive the “The ion linear accelerator with space-uniform
strong focusing”. Demonstrated in 1979 at LANL, and named the radiofrequency
quadrupole accelerator (RFQ). The concept increases the ion beam current that
can be accelerated at low beta. This will be important for ICF drivers using
high-energy heavy ions (HIF).
- 1972 - The first neodymium-doped glass (Nd:glass) laser for ICF
research, the "Long Path laser" is completed at LLNL
and is capable of delivering ~50 joules to a fusion target.
- 1974 - Taylor re-visited ZETA results of 1958 and
explained that the quiet-period was in fact very interesting. This led to
the development of "reversed field pinch", now generalized as
"self-organizing plasmas", an ongoing line of research.
- 1975 - Heavy ion beams using mature high-energy
accelerator technology hailed as the elusive “brand-X” laser capable of
driving fusion implosions for commercial power.
Livingston Curve from Stanford SLAC Educ. Group modified to show the energy
needed for fusion to occur.
- 1975 - Experiments commence on the single beam LLNL Cyclops
laser, testing new optical designs for future ICF lasers.
- 1976 - Workshop, called by the US-ERDA (now
DOE) at the Claremont Hotel in Berkeley, CA for an ad hoc two-week summer
study of heavy ion fusion (HIF). Fifty
senior scientists from the major US ICF programs and accelerator
laboratories participated, and program heads and a sprinkling of Nobel
Prize laureates also attended. In the closing address, Dr. C. Martin
Stickley, then Director of ERDA’s Office of Inertial Fusion, announced the
conclusion was “no showstoppers” on the road to fusion energy using HIF.
- 1976 - Design work on JET, the Joint European Torus, began.
- The two beam Argus
laser is completed at LLNL and experiments involving more
advanced laser-target interactions are begun.
- 1977 - The 20 beam Shiva
laser at LLNL is completed and is capable of delivering 10.2
kilojoules of infrared energy on target. At a price of $25 million and a
size approaching that of a football field, the Shiva laser is the first of
the "megalasers" at LLNL and brings the field of ICF research
fully within the realm of "big
- 1978 - The JET project was given the go-ahead by then EC. The chosen site was an ex-RAF airfield south east of Oxford,
- 1979 LANL successfully
demonstrates the radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ). ANL and
Hughes Research Laboratories demonstrate required ion source brightness
with xenon beam at 1.5MeV. Foster Panel reports to USDoE’s
Energy Research and Advisory Board that HIF is the “conservative approach”
to fusion power. Listing HIF’s advantages in his report to ERAB in 1979, John Foster
remarked: “…now that is kind of exciting.” After DoE Office of Inertial
Fusion completed review of programs, Director Gregory Canavan decided to
accelerate the HIF effort.
- 1982 - Tore
Supra construction was started at Cadarache,
France. Its superconducting magnets permitted it to
generate a strong permanent toroidal magnetic field. 
- 1982 - HIBALL study by German and US
institutions uses the high repetition rate of the RF accelerator driver to
serve four reactor chambers and first-wall protection using liquid lithium
inside the chamber cavity.
Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung; Institut
für Plasmaphysik, Garching; Kernforschungszentrum
Karlsruhe, University of Wisconsin, Madison;
Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching.
- 1983 - JET was completed on time and on budget.
First plasmas achieved.
- The NOVETTE laser at LLNL comes on line and is used as a
test bed for the next generation of ICF lasers, specifically the NOVA
- 1984 - The huge 10 beam NOVA
laser at LLNL is completed and switches on in December. NOVA
would ultimately produce a maximum of 120 kilojoules of infrared laser
light during a nanosecond pulse in a 1989 experiment.
- 1985 - National Academy of Sciences reviewed
military ICF programs, noting HIF’s major advantages clearly but averring
that HIF was “supported primarily by other [than military] programs”. The
review of ICF by the National Academy of Sciences marked the trend with
the observation: “The energy crisis is dormant for the time being.” Energy
is the sole purpose of heavy ion fusion.
- 1985 - The Japanese tokamak, JT-60
was completed. First plasmas achieved.
- 1988 - The T-15, Soviet tokamak with superconducting
helium-cooled coils was completed.
- 1988 - The Conceptual Design Activity for the
International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER),
the successor to T-15, TFTR,
JET and JT-60,
began. Participants were EURATOM, Japan, Soviet
Union and United States. It ended in 1990.
- 1988 - The first plasma was produced in Tore
Supra in April. 
- 1989 - On March 23, two Utah
electrochemists, Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann, announced that they had
achieved cold fusion: fusion reactions which could
occur at room temperatures. However, they made their announcements before
any peer review of their work was performed, and no subsequent experiments
by other researchers revealed any evidence of fusion.
- 1990 - Decision to construct the NIF "beamlet" laser at LLNL is
- 1991 - The START Tokamak fusion experiment began in Culham.
The experiment would eventually achieve a record beta (plasma pressure compared to magnetic
field pressure) of 40% using a neutral beam injector. It was the first
design that adapted the conventional toroidal fusion experiments into a
tighter spherical design.
- 1992 - The Engineering Design Activity for the ITER
began. Participants were EURATOM, Japan, Russia and United States.
It ended in 2001.
- 1992 – The last nuclear bomb testing … finishing the
studying of the minimum amount of energy necessary get nuclear fusion to
- 1993 - The TFTR tokamak at Princeton (PPPL) experimented with 50% deuterium,
50% tritium, eventually producing as much as 10 megawatts of
power from a controlled fusion reaction.
- 1994 - The USA declassiﬁes information about
indirectly-driven (hohlraum) target design. Comprehensive European-based
study of HIF driver begins, centered at the Gesellshaft für
Schwerionenforschung (GSI) and involving 14 laboratories, including USA
and Russia. The Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) study will be
completed in 1997.
- 1994 - NIF Beamlet laser is complete and begins
experiments validating the expected performance of NIF.
- 1996 - A record was reached at Tore
Supra: a plasma duration of two minutes with a current of
almost 1 million amperes driven non-inductively by 2.3 MW of lower hybrid frequency waves (i.e. 280 MJ
of injected and extracted energy). This result was possible due to the
actively cooled plasma-facing components installed in the machine. This
result opened the way to the active control of steady state plasma
discharges and the associated physics. 
- 1997 - LLNL study compared projected costs of
power from ICF and other fusion approaches to the projected future costs
of existing energy sources. HIF power was estimated to cost slightly more
than natural gas and slightly less than a next generation fission plant,
without exploiting HIF’s ability to drive multiple fusion power chambers.
- 1997 - The JET tokamak in the UK produced 16 MW of
fusion power - the current world record for fusion power. Four megawatts
of alpha particle self-heating was achieved.
- Groundbreaking ceremony held for the National Ignition Facility (NIF).
- Combining a field-reversed pinch with an
imploding magnetic cylinder resulted in the new Magnetized Target Fusion
concept in the U.S.. In this system a "normal" lower density
plasma device was explosively squeezed using techniques developed for
high-speed gun research.
- 1998 - Results of European-based study of heavy
ion driven fusion power system (HIDIF, GSI-98-06) incorporates telescoping
beams of multiple isotopic species. This technique multiplies the 6-D
phase space useable for the design of HIF drivers.
- 1998 - HIBALL , and a new design was
prepared incorporating advances in accelerator technology and improvements
in computational techniques. Up to 14 laboratories have been associated
with the study, which at the end of 1997 culminated in a complete layout
described in an interim report .
- 1998 - The JT-60 tokamak in Japan produced a high
performance reversed shear plasma with the equivalent fusion amplification
factor Qeq of 1.25 -
the current world record of Q.
- 1999 - The United States withdrew from the ITER
- 2001 - Building construction for the immense 192 beam
500 terawatt NIF project is completed and construction
of laser beamlines and target bay diagnostics commences. The NIF is expected to take its first full
system shot in 2010.
- Negotiations Meeting on the Joint
Implementation of ITER begins. Participants were Canada, European Union, Japan and Russia.
- 2002 - Claims and counter-claims were published
regarding bubble fusion, in which a table-top
apparatus was reported as producing small-scale fusion in a liquid
undergoing acoustic cavitation. Like cold fusion, it
was later dismissed.
- 2003 - The United States rejoined the ITER
project, and China and Republic of Korea newly joined while Canada
- 2003 - Cadarache in France selected as the
European Candidate Site for ITER.
- 2004 - The United States dropped its own project, the
Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE), to focus resources on ITER.
- 2005 - Following final negotiations between the EU and
Japan, ITER chose Cadarache
over Rokkasho for the site of the reactor. In
concession, Japan was made the host site for a related materials research
facility and was granted rights to fill 20% of the project's research
posts while providing 10% of the funding.
- The NIF fires its first bundle of 8 beams
achieving the highest ever energy laser pulse of 152.8 kJ (infrared).
- 2006 - China's EAST
test reactor is completed, the first tokamak experiment to use
superconducting magnets to generate both the toroidal and poloidal fields.
- 2008 - Single pass HIF patent applied for by Robert
- 2009 - Ricardo Betti the third Under Secretary,
responsible for Nuclear Energy, testified before Congress: “IFE [ICF for
energy production] has no home”.
- 2009 - Construction of the NIF reported as complete.
- 2010 – HIF-2010 Symposium in Darmstadt Germany. Robert
J Burke presented on Single Pass HIF and Charles Helsley made a
presentation on the commercialization of HIF within the decade.
- 2010 – NAS appoints a committee to study the “Prospects
for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems”
- 2011 - May 23-26 Workshop for Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, presentation by Robert J. Burke on "Single Pass Heavy Ion Fusion".
- 2012 - 19th HIF Symposium, Berkeley, CA, R. J. Burke presented a paper on "The Single Pass RF Driver: Final beam compression" and C.E. Helsley presented "Economic Viability of Large-scale Fusion Systems"
- 2013 - March - Russia awards patent No 2 477 897 to Arcada Systems (RJBurke), "Single Pass Heavy Ion Fusion"
- ^ ...the first money to be allocated [to controlled
nuclear research] happened to be for Tuck, and was diverted from Project
Lincoln, in the Hood Laboratory. The coincidence of names prompted the
well-known cover name "Project Sherwood". James L. Tuck, "Curriculum Vita and Autobiography,"
Declassified document from Los Alamos National Laboratory (1974),
reproduced with permission.
- Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) study
- R. Burke, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research A (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. nima.2013.05.080i